Neither principle is considered subordinate to the other; each complements the other and is capable of expressing both female and male characteristics. Within Taoism, then, women were able to seek spiritual fulfillment beyond their family duties. Some joined convents, others gathered with men to discuss philosophy and religion, a few became Taoist adepts. This pervasive fear that women could bring chaos by upsetting the cosmic harmony was an obstacle for women who aspired to male political leadership.
Excerpt Introduction When individuals or groups from different cultural backgrounds meet, certain preconceptions they have of each other influence their interactions. According to Chinas culture stereotype essay social constructionist approach, culture is not necessarily based on nationality alone.
Biases based on gender, age, social class, occupation, appearance, etc. In the following I will therefore use the term intercultural communication as referring not only to communication between people with different nationalities, but also to communication between members of different social groups.
In this paper, I will first attempt to describe the nature of common preconceptions, i. To illustrate this, I will use specific media examples.
I will then look at whether stereotyping is an inevitable process or whether it can be avoided. I will also address the question whether stereotypes ought to be seen as a positive or negative influence on intercultural communication. Finally I will try to determine the role stereotypes play in the study of intercultural communication, as some approaches to communication studies seek to discover average tendencies in national cultures, which can lead to similar categorisations and simplifications as in the process of stereotyping.
|Culture Name||Fang He Men and women are typically stereotyped and portrayed differently by the media. Evaluate ways in which negative consequences of this could be reduced.|
I will evaluate the validity of such an approach and will conclude that stereotypes and categorisations are necessary to a certain degree as a sense-making device, but should at the same time be regarded with great caution. The nature of stereotypes There is a variety of definitions of the term stereotype that generally agree about its basic nature but differ in certain additional aspects.
There seems to be common agreement that stereotypes are beliefs about the characteristics of an outgroup or its members. These beliefs can be based on a number of variables ranging from gender, sexual orientation, level of education, and social class to nationality. The characteristics associated with another party can be of a positive or negative nature.
Stereotypes originate from social categorisation Stangor, That means, rather than viewing another individual or group as complex and unique and approaching them without preconceptions, we make assumptions about them based on one or more of the variables mentioned above, and put them in a certain category.
We thereby ignore their individual traits, impose a certain interpretation on them and reduce our view of them to a simplified image cf. For instance, when we see a person whose arms are covered in tattoos, not know anything else about them, we might assume they like to listen to punk rock, belong to a gang, do not have a permanent job or drive a motorcycle, because these are attributes that are often associated with tattoos.
Once we have assigned a person or group to a certain category, thoughts, feelings and interactional patterns are activated that are associated with that category rather than the actual individuals we are dealing with.
According to Stangor It occurs naturally and is not limited to people, but also extends to types of houses, television shows, music, etc. It is a process that happens frequently, particularly when we are confronted with something or someone new, and we are largely unaware of it.
Without this tool to make sense of our surroundings, reacting to new objects, situations and people would become an infinitely more complex, overwhelming process. Another reason for categorisation is our need for social identity.
We achieve a feeling of belonging and acceptance by setting our ingroup apart from other groups through categorising ourselves more favourably than them.
Stereotyping is thus an extension of social categorisation. What kind of mental associations we hold depends on which stereotypes are commonly reproduced in the society we lived in, on what we picked up during childhood and on personal experiences with members of social categories.
Concepts closely related to stereotypes are prejudice, discrimination and otherisation. Prejudice In social psychology, prejudice has also been labelled ingroup favouritism, social antagonism, and ethnocentrism Augoustinos and Reynolds, These and other terms emphasize different aspects of prejudice.
While stereotypes can include both negative and positive characteristics, prejudice can be described as beliefs that attribute negative characteristics, and they usually carry a more emotional component. When applied to certain social categories, prejudice can be labelled more specifically, e.
The notion that blond women are stupid is an example for sexist prejudice.China contains one-fifth of the world's population and is the world's fastest-growing economy.
A visitor to the country sees the meeting of an ancient culture that dates to roughly B.C. and a. A stereotype is a judgment about an individual based on the real or imagined characteristics of a group.
Joseph H. Suina, a professor of education and a member of the Cochiti Pueblo, recalls the effects stereotyping had on his behavior in the Marines. Home › Culture & Society › The Significance of Family in China. The Significance of Family in China By Sean Upton-McLaughlin on 06/21/ • (14).
Many challenges await the Western businessperson in China, but one factor that may escape immediate notice is the significance of the Chinese family. Mexican Food.
When you order a Shawarma sandwich here in Dubai or back in my home country, Lebanon, (i.e. thousands of miles away from Mexico and USA where stereotyping is a sensitive topic), you may order the regular type of Shawarma or the Mexican type of Shawarma (Ofcource, the Mexican type is always synonymous to the spicy version).
I always think it’s kind of funny when I hear people talking about the “Chinese work ethic.” Usually it’s an American who knows plenty of successful Chinese immigrants in the States and just assumes that China is a nation of the same kind of people.
This essay argues that in China the relation between the state and culture is quite different and it is the government that uses culture to promote the needs of the state and national identity.