Requirements - Restrictive provisions Comptroller General - Key Excerpts New A contracting agency generally has the discretion to determine its needs and the best method to accommodate them. Further, an agency has heightened discretion to define solicitation requirements to achieve the highest possible effectiveness when the subject of the agency's acquisition relates to national defense or human safety. Where a protester challenges a specification or requirement as unduly restrictive of competition, the procuring agency has the responsibility of establishing that the specification or requirement is reasonably necessary to meet the agency's needs. We examine the adequacy of the agency's justification for a restrictive solicitation provision to ensure that it is rational and can withstand logical scrutiny.
Total estimated intake from tub and tile cleaner It is assumed that thin films of liquid products form on the exposed skin surface and that complete dermal absorption of ethylene glycol present in the thin films occurs. An area of cm2 is approximately the combined area of the palms and outstretched fingers of two adult hands.
Minimum average daily intakes based on penetration rates that are proportional to the ethylene glycol content of the products are several orders of magnitude less for each of these products Health Canada, This value pertains to the year in which the activity is performed.
If it is assumed that each room is painted every 5 years US EPA,the event frequency is 7 per year. The highest estimates of daily intake by adults due to dermal absorption of ethylene glycol from consumer products result from the standardized scenarios involving the use of tub and tile cleaner.
Although mid-point estimates of event frequencies are assumed i. Therefore, daily intakes are higher for the tub and tile cleaner, even though higher concentrations of ethylene glycol may be present in the other product types.
It should be noted that these values represent worst-case estimates. Estimated daily intakes by dermal absorption of ethylene glycol from use of these consumer products are several orders of magnitude less when based on less conservative assumptions.
These include the assumptions that dermal absorption is proportional to the concentration of ethylene glycol in the products and that steady-state penetration occurs for periods equivalent to the average durations of product uses in the standardized scenarios Health Canada, However, available data on permeability through human skin are inadequate as a basis for confident estimation of exposure, and, as a result, these estimates are not presented here.
This is due to lack of evidence of adequate viability of the skin in the most comprehensive investigation conducted to date, i. Moody, personal communication, ; Health Canada, A proportion of the population is also exposed to ethylene glycol as passengers during deicing operations for aircraft.
While the pattern of exposure of individuals in the population is expected to be highly variable, depending upon frequency of aeroplane travel during the winter season, identified data are inadequate to quantitatively estimate intake from this source. Contact with the skin and eyes is the most likely route of worker exposure to ethylene glycol.
Workers with greatest potential for exposure to ethylene glycol are those in industries involved in the manufacture or use of products containing high concentrations e.
Trace quantities of ethylene glycol have been detected in artificial theatrical smoke used in plays, concerts, and amusement parks NIOSH, It is rapidly distributed in body water Jacobsen et al.
Based on studies involving oral administration of single doses of ethylene glycol by gavage, absorption is rapid and nearly complete, with peak plasma concentrations increasing linearly with dose among various species i.
The results of available studies also indicate that, compared with oral exposure, ethylene glycol was absorbed more slowly and to a lesser extent into the systemic circulation following dermal contact.
Ethylene glycol is oxidized in experimental animals and in humans in successive steps, first to glycoaldehyde in a reaction catalysed by alcohol dehydrogenasethen to glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid, and oxalic acid Figure 2.
Glyoxylic acid is metabolized in intermediary metabolism to malate, formate, and glycine.Gmail is email that's intuitive, efficient, and useful. 15 GB of storage, less spam, and mobile access. FIN Dicussion Questions Week 1 Discussion Question 1, An Overview of Financial Management Week 1 Discussion Question 2, An Overview of Financial Management Week 2 Discussion Question 1, Financial Statement, Cash Flow, and Taxes Week 2 Discussion Question 2, Analysis of Financial Statements Week 3 Discussion Question 1: Time Value of Money.
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FIN Week 3 Relative Performance Analysis Paper University of Phoenix FIN - Spring Figure 1: Chemical structure of ethylene glycol.
Ethylene glycol is a clear, colourless, odourless, relatively non-volatile, viscous liquid. It has a sweet taste and imparts a .