Be careful of the words then and now; neither is a coordinating conjunction, so what we say about coordinating conjunctions' roles in a sentence and punctuation does not apply to those two words. When a coordinating conjunction connects two independent clausesit is often but not always accompanied by a comma:
To a large extent, that can be attributed to cheating, what with no vowels and all. Scandinavian languages are pretty much on par with English. Swedish is a tiny bit more compact.
Whether or not Russian and by extension, Ukrainian and Belorussian is more compact than English is subject to heated debate, and if you ask five people, you'll be presented with six different opinions.
However, everybody seems to agree that the difference is just a couple percent, be it this way or the other. Now that's for complete texts, on average, as a rule of thumb.
Obviously, when you are working on a GUI, you mostly have to deal with translating individual words, which changes the picture dramatically. I am not aware of any universal research on the subject, but I will go out on a limb and say that it would be worthless to you, precisely because of being universal.
First of all, let's have a look at English itself. A very popular estimate for the average length of English words is 5 letters or 5. I will not expressly address the validity of that estimate here, though I will link to this tiny bit of intriguing research executive summary: Much rather, I will focus on saying that your mileage will always vary.
It all depends on what application you are writing, and for what target audience. You might be writing a text editor for children, a web browser for everyone, or a worst-case execution time analyzer for the aerospace industry.
Sometimes, your menu entries will read "Open", "Edit", "Save" and "Quit". Other times, they will read "Crossing reduction" and "Simulated annealing". Add into the equation that "Quit" is not necessarily short in all languages, and "simulated annealing" is not necessarily long, and you've got yourself a complete mess, no matter what the universal research says.
Traditional research and urban legends alike focus on the number of characters. But for a GUI designer, that kind of information is rather useless, because he measures the screen real estate in pixels.
But in terms of pixels, you don't save anywhere as much space. So, whether or not your menu items in Japanese, Chinese, Arabic, Farsi or Urdu will end up being shorter than their English counterparts depends on how you define "shorter". The tricky part is that to one extent or another, this is true for every pair of languages, even for those that use the same alphabet.
You have the English word "illicitly", and you translate it into Phantasese, and you get "mamwowo". It's two letters shorter, yet it no longer fits. Unless, of course, you are using monospaced fonts everywhere, which is highly unlikely.Mixing up sounds in multi-syllabic words: For example, aminal for animal, bisghetti for spaghetti, hekalopter for helicopter, hangaberg for hamburger, mazageen for magazine, etc.
repeatedly subvocalizes the names of those letters, then stares intensely at their paper when writing those one or two letters. This process is repeated over and.
Mar 31, · The letter transposition in the words resulted in lower reading speeds for most participants. The students read words per minute when the sentences were normal, and words per minute when the letters were transposed, a 12 percent decrease in overall reading speed.
But Roosevelt's words buoyed up millions all over the world. The U.S. ambassador to Japan, Joseph Grew, commented that this speech would mark a turning point in history. On January 6, , Roosevelt formally presented his Lend-Lease plan to Congress as H.R. Jan 11, · Mixing up the order of letters when writing I find when I'm writing I mix up the order of the first couple of letters of a word every now and again, optimistic becomes potimistic, for example - maybe every time I'm writing for an hour it happens two or three times.
Letter order - People with dyslexia may also reverse the order of two letters especially when the final, incorrect, word looks similar to the intended word (e.g., spelling "dose" instead of "does").
Letter addition/subtraction - People with dyslexia may perceive a word with letters added, subtracted, or repeated. Directional confusion is the reason for reversing of letters, whole words or numbers, or for so-called mirror writing. The following symptoms indicate directional confusion: The dyslexic may reverse letters like b and d, or p and q, either when reading or writing.