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Index Preface Why? A s 1 am finishing this book, Science magazine is running a special issue about the sequencing of the macaque genome. It turns out that macaques share about 93 perc e n t of their genes with us, humans.
Previously it has been already reported that chimpanzees share about 9 6 percent of their genes with us. Yes, the macaque is our c o m m o n ancestor, and it might be expected that, together with the chimps, we c o n tinued with our natural selection some 23 million years ago until, some 6 million years ago, we departed from the chimps to c o n t i n u e our further search for better adaptation.
Actually it was not quite like this.
Apparently it was the chimps that departed from LIS; now that we have the macaques as the starting point, we can see that the chimp's genome has way more mutations than ours.
S o the chimps are further ahead than we are in their adaptation to the e n v i r o n m e n t. How did that happen, and how is it then that we, and not the chimps, have spread around all the Earth?
Apparently at some point a mutation put us on a different track. T h i s was a mutation that served an entirely different purpose: Instead of acquiring new features that would make us better suited to the e n v i r o n m e n twe found that we could start changing the e n v i r o n m e n t to better suit us - and that turned out to be even more efficient.
It appears that not that many mutations were needed for us to start using our brainpower, skills and hands to build tools and to design microenvironments in support of the life in our fragile bodies - certainly not as many as the chimps had to develop on their road to survival.
Building shelters, sewing clothing or using fire, we created small cocoons of environments around us that were suitable for life.
Suddenly the rate o f change, the rate of adaptation, increased; there was no longer a need for millions of years of trial and error.
W e could pass the information on to our children, and they would already know what to do. W e no longer needed the c h a n c e to govern the selection of the right mutations and the best adaptive traits, and we found a better way to register these traits using spoken and written language instead of the genome.
T h e human species really took off. O u r locally created comfortable microenvironments started to grow. From small caves where dozens of people were packed in with no particular comfort, we have moved to single-family houses with hundreds o f square meters of space.
W e have learned to survive in all c l i m a t i c zones on this planet, and even beyond, in space. As long as we can bring our cocoons with us, the e n v i r o n m e n t is good enough for us to live. And so more IX X Preface and more humans have been born, wtrh more and more space occupied, and more and more resources used co create our microcosms.
W h e n microcosms are joined togecher and expand, chey are no longer " m i c r o. Now it is the humans' planet, where we dominate and regulate. As Vernadskii predicted, we have become a geological force that shapes this planer.
He wasn't even talking about climate change at that time Now we can do even that, and are doing so. Unfortunately, we do not seem to be prepared to understand that. Was there a glitch in that mutation, which gave us the mechanism and the power but forgot about the self-control!
O r we just have not found it yeL? For all these years, human progress has been and still is equated to growrh and expansion W e have been pressing the gas to the floor, only accelerating. But any driver knows that at high speed it becomes harder to steer, especially when the road is unmarked and Lhe destination is unknown.
A t higher speeds, the price of error becomes fatal. But let us take a look at the other end o f the spectrum. A colony o f yeast planted on a sugar subsLrate starts to grow.
It expands exponentially, consuming sugar, and then it crashes, exhausting the feed and suffocating in its own products of metabolism.
Keep in mind that there is a lot of similarity between our g e n o m e and t h a t of yeasL. T h e yeast keeps consuming and growing; it c a n n o t predict or understand the c o n s e q u e n c e s of its actions.This condition is easy to reproduce with system services.
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