Passive Design Designing the building and the spaces within it to benefit from natural light, ventilation and even temperatures.
History[ edit ] Bo Adamsonco-originator of the passive house concept. Wolfgang Feistco-originator of the passive house concept, and founder of the ' Passivhaus Institut ' in Germany.
Much of the early 'Passive Houses' were based on research and the experience of North American builders during the s,  who—in response to the oil embargo—sought to build homes that used very little or no energy.
These designs often utilized the sun as a heat source and the term 'passive house' was possibly derived from the passive solar features of these houses, such as the Saskatchewan Conservation House and the Leger House in Pepperell, Massachusetts.
First examples[ edit ] The eventual construction of four row houses terraced houses or town homes was designed for four private clients by the architectural firm Bott, Ridder and Westermeyer.
The first Passivhaus residences were built in Darmstadt inand occupied by the clients the following year. Further implementation and councils[ edit ] In Septemberthe Passivhaus-Institut was founded in Darmstadt to promote and control Passivhaus standards.
This group developed the planning Passive design solutions and initiated the production of the innovative components that had been used, notably the Passive design solutions and the high-efficiency ventilation systems. Meanwhile, further passive houses were built in StuttgartNaumburg, HesseWiesbadenand Cologne In the United States, the concept of passive design was first implemented by Katrin Klingenberg in when she built a passive home prototype named "The Smith House" in Urbana, Illinois .
From here, she and builder Mike Kernagis co-founded the e-cological Construction Laboratory e-colab in to further explore the feasibility of affordable passive design.
The house was called 'Out of the Blue'. Upon completion, Tomas moved into the building. Standards[ edit ] The dark colours on this thermogram of a Passive house, at right, shows how little heat is escaping compared to a traditional building to the left.
While some techniques and technologies were specifically developed for the Passive House standard, others, such as superinsulationalready existed, and the concept of passive solar building design dates back to antiquity.
There was other previous experience with low-energy building standards, notably the German Niedrigenergiehaus low-energy house standard, as well as from buildings constructed to the demanding energy codes of Sweden and Denmark.
The German Passivhaus Standard[ edit ] The Passivhaus standard requires that the building fulfills the following requirements: Total primary energy source energy for electricity, etc.
The building must not leak more air than 0. These standards are much higher than houses built to most normal building codes. For comparisons, see the international comparisons section below. National partners within the 'consortium for the Promotion of European Passive Houses' are thought to have some flexibility to adapt these limits locally.
While this is an underlying objective of the Passivhaus standard, some type of heating will still be required and most Passivhaus buildings do include a system to provide supplemental space heating. This is normally distributed through the low-volume heat recovery ventilation system that is required to maintain air quality, rather than by a conventional hydronic or high-volume forced-air heating system, as described in the space heating section below.
Different from its German counterpart, this standard uses climate data sets to determine specific building performance criteria for different regions.
Such information is determined using metrics that represent a space where significant carbon and energy reduction overlap with cost-effectiveness. These are accredited professionals from the PHIUS that are able to perform on-site testing and inspections to ensure that the newly constructed building is adhering to the construction plans, created energy models, and desired operating conditions.
With careful design and increasing competition in the supply of the specifically designed Passivhaus building products, in Germany it is now possible to construct buildings for the same cost as those built to normal German building standardsas was done with the Passivhaus apartments at Vauban, Freiburg.
Design and construction[ edit ] The Passivhaus uses a combination of low-energy building techniques and technologies.
Achieving the major decrease in heating energy consumption required by the standard involves a shift in approach to building design and construction. To achieve the standards, a number of techniques and technologies are used in combination: Following passive solar building techniqueswhere possible buildings are compact in shape to reduce their surface area, with principal windows oriented towards the equator - south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere - to maximize passive solar gain.
However, the use of solar gain, especially in temperate climate regions, is secondary to minimizing the overall house energy requirements.
In climates and regions needing to reduce excessive summer passive solar heat gain, whether from direct or reflected sources, Brise soleiltreesattached pergolas with vinesvertical gardensgreen roofsand other techniques are implemented. Passive houses can be constructed from dense or lightweight materials, but some internal thermal mass is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures, maintain stable winter temperatures, and prevent possible overheating in spring or autumn before the higher sun angle "shades" mid-day wall exposure and window penetration.
Exterior wall color, when the surface allows choice, for reflection or absorption insolation qualities depends on the predominant year-round ambient outdoor temperature. The use of deciduous trees and wall trellised or self attaching vines can assist in climates not at the temperature extremes.
Superinsulation[ edit ] Passivhaus buildings employ superinsulation to significantly reduce the heat transfer through the walls, roof and floor compared to conventional buildings. Special attention is given to eliminating thermal bridges.
A disadvantage resulting from the thickness of wall insulation required is that, unless the external dimensions of the building can be enlarged to compensate, the internal floor area of the building may be less compared to traditional construction.Passive design ‘Passive design’ is design that takes advantage of the climate to maintain a comfortable temperature range in the home.
Passive design reduces or eliminates the need for auxiliary heating or cooling, which accounts for about 40% (or much more in some climates) of energy use in the average Australian home. Passive Design. Designing the building and the spaces within it to benefit from natural light, ventilation and even temperatures.
In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, Other creative solutions involve the use of reflecting surfaces to admit daylight into the interior of a building. Window sections should be adequately sized, and to avoid over-illumination can be shielded with a Brise soleil.
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Passive & Active Design CIBSE Building Simulations GroupCIBSE Building Simulations Group Peter A. Brown CEng, MBA October To be comfortable, buildings in all Australian climates require some form of cooling at some time of the year. There are many ways you can design or modify your home to achieve comfort through passive (non-mechanical) cooling, as well as hybrid approaches which utilise mechanical cooling systems.