In actual fact, the chemistry takes place in several steps. When the chemicals sodium chloride and silver nitrate are dissolved, they become hydrated ions: Bystander ions are also called spectator ions.
Thesis or Dissertation Abstract Chapter One. The barriers to bond activation and the strategies employed to overcome these barriers will be summarized. Examples of stoichiometric and catalytic reactions utilizing strained systems and other thermodynamic driving forces are presented in addition to kinetic strategies enforced through cyclometalation.
The focus of the second chapter is on my discoveries in quinoline-directed C-C bond activation. A series of catalytic intramolecular carboacylation reactions with both alkenes and alkynes will be discussed.
The mechanism s of such transformations were elucidated by researchers at Hope College and will be presented. The intermolecular carboacylation with norbornenes discovered by other Douglas group members will be acknowledged, and preliminary investigations into the idea of migratory insertion or sigma-bond metathesis across cyclopropane will be provided.
The third chapter of this thesis describes my efforts to uncover a synthetically viable directing group for C-C bond activation. Directing groups that are anticipated to be removable and reusable, such as quinoline esters, pyridyl esters, and azaindoles, will be described.
Efforts to promote C-C activation with versatile triazene directing groups will be discussed.
The strategy of metal-organic cooperative catalysis MOCC was explored with guanidines and 2-amino pyrimidine diol derivatives, and the concept of Lewis acid or hydrogen-bond-mediated directing groups will be proposed. Chapter four provides a selected review of carbon-nitrile C-CN bond activation.
Cleavage of alkyl, allyl, alkenyl, aryl, acyl, and carbamoyl C-CN bonds that undergo subsequent functionalization will be reported. Intramolecular variations of such reactions are highlighted in complex molecule syntheses. The final chapter will explain my efforts in developing enantio- and diastereoselective routes to 3,3-disubstituted lactams via C-CN bond activation cyanoamidation.This includes examples from the Ce-mediated hydrogenation of pyridine, Rh-catalysed C-H bond activation and functionalization, Pd-catalysed azidocarbonylation and .
A review of σ-bond metathesis is presented using Watson's observation of degenerative methyl ligand exchange at metallocene compounds as a starting point. C07C6/02 — Metathesis reactions at an unsaturated carbon-to-carbon bond Abstract Described are novel bimetallic complexes particularly useful as homogeneous catalysts for the metathesis of alkynes, and methods for the preparation of such complexes.
The label sigma-bond metathesis is best given to the curved arrow in a catalytic cycle indicating a reaction between two intermediates or (as in this case) to .
Sigma-bond metathesis reactions of the type of eq 3 are mechanistically addressed by several theoretical approaches. One of the first is the ab initio (GVB). sigma.-Bond metathesis for carbon-hydrogen bonds of hydrocarbons and Sc-R (R = H, alkyl, aryl) bonds of permethylscandocene derivatives.
Evidence for noninvolvement of leslutinsduphoenix.com system in electrophilic activation of aromatic and vinylic C-H bonds.