Although much of the research on attachment has focused on infants and children, attachment theory is also applicable to adults in a psychodynamic framework, as attachment patterns tend to remain stable through to adulthood Hesse ; Fonagy, Domains of Attachment Theory and Therapy Attachment theory was initiated by the work of Bowlbywho, inspired by ethological research on imprinting behaviour Lorenz, and critical periods Katz,argued that attachment to a primary caregiver is a biological need essential for the survival of the species by ensuring safety and developmental maturation. Current research by Schore confirms the biological necessity of a secure attachment relationship on the development the regulation of affect and mental health of the right brain from late pregnancy to 2 years of age.
Infant attachment[ edit ] The attachment system serves to achieve or maintain proximity to the attachment figure. In close physical proximity this system is not activated, and the infant can direct its attention to the outside world. Within attachment theory, attachment means "a biological instinct in which proximity to an attachment figure is sought when the child senses or perceives threat or discomfort.
Attachment behaviour anticipates a response by the attachment figure which will remove threat or discomfort". John Bowlby begins by noting organisms at different levels of the phylogenetic scale regulate instinctive behavior in distinct ways, ranging from primitive reflex-like "fixed action patterns" to complex plan hierarchies with subgoals and strong learning components.
In the most complex organisms, instinctive behaviors may be "goal-corrected" with continual on-course adjustments such as Similarities between harlow and ainsworth bird of prey adjusting its flight to the movements of the prey. The concept of cybernetically controlled behavioral systems organized as plan hierarchies Miller, Galanter, and Pribram, thus came to replace Freud's concept of drive and instinct.
Such systems regulate behaviors in ways that need not be rigidly innate, but—depending on the organism—can adapt in greater or lesser degrees to changes in environmental circumstances, provided these do not deviate much from the organism's environment of evolutionary adaptedness. Such flexible organisms pay a price, however, because adaptable behavioral systems can more easily be subverted from their optimal path of development.
For humans, Bowlby speculates, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness probably resembles present-day hunter-gatherer societies for the purpose of survival, and, ultimately, genetic replication.
These figures are arranged hierarchically, with the principal attachment figure at the top. Anxiety is the anticipation or fear of being cut off from the attachment figure. If the figure is unavailable or unresponsive, separation distress occurs.
By age three or four, physical separation is no longer such a threat to the child's bond with the attachment figure. Threats to security in older children and adults arise from prolonged absence, breakdowns in communication, emotional unavailability, or signs of rejection or abandonment.
A securely attached baby is free to concentrate on their environment. The attachment behavioural system serves to achieve or maintain proximity to the attachment figure. During the first phase the first eight weeksinfants smile, babble, and cry to attract the attention of potential caregivers.
Although infants of this age learn to discriminate between caregivers, these behaviours are directed at anyone in the vicinity. During the second phase two to six monthsthe infant discriminates between familiar and unfamiliar adults, becoming more responsive toward the caregiver; following and clinging are added to the range of behaviours.
The infant's behaviour toward the caregiver becomes organized on a goal-directed basis to achieve the conditions that make it feel secure.
These manifest as protesting the caregiver's departure, greeting the caregiver's return, clinging when frightened, and following when able.
If the caregiver is inaccessible or unresponsive, attachment behaviour is more strongly exhibited. For example, whereas babies cry because of pain, two-year-olds cry to summon their caregiver, and if that does not work, cry louder, shout, or follow.
Tenets[ edit ] Common attachment behaviours and emotions, displayed in most social primates including humans, are adaptive.FEATURED COPS. This section, and it is huge, looks at cases, dirty cops and what the Police do not like you to see about themselves.
I will not bore you with their claims of unfairness on my part and the denials they continually issue to cover up their malpractice. An overview of each follows, highlighting the similarities and differences between the various forms.
Classification is often based on function with respect to . This essay will look at the similarities and the differences between Mary Ainsworth’s study on children’s attachment and William Corsaro’s study on children’s friendship.
6 days ago · The former long-term boyfriend of pop singer Kylie Minogue, Joshua Sasse, has tied the knot with his fiancée Louisa Ainsworth after a whirlwind romance. Extracts from this document Introduction. Describe and Evaluate Bowlby's and Ainsworth's ideas about parent-child relationships.
Attachments represent an important feature of an infant's early experience; there are many reasons why they can be considered to be of vital importance in the development of infants.
Newborn Photography – Jaxon – Harlow Essex. by SarahG80 // April 25, // Comments off. Newborn Photography- Baby Photographer 11 days New Jaxon.
I can’t get over the similarities between them both. We also had to re create one of my favourite daddy and baby images which I took of Mason two years ago.