Ancient times[ edit ] The sociological reasoning may be traced back at least as far as the ancient Greeks cf. Proto-sociological observations are to be found in the founding texts of Western philosophy HerodotusThucydidesPlatoPolybius and so onas well as in the non-European thought of figures such as Confucius. Because there was rarely any extensive or highly centralized political organization within states this allowed the tribal spirit of localism and provincialism to have free play.
It is not intended to replace instructions from your professors and TAs. In all cases follow course-specific assignment instructions, and consult your TA or professor if you have questions. About These Assignments Theory application assignments are a common type of analytical writing assigned in Sociology research news articles classes.
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Sociology research news articles instructors expect you to apply sociological theories sometimes called "perspectives" or "arguments" to empirical phenomena. Ask yourself, what would the theory predict "have to say" about a particular situation.
According to the theory, if particular conditions are present or you see a change in a particular variable, what outcome should you expect? Generally, a first step in a theory application assignment is to make certain you understand the theory!
Depending upon the assignment, you may be asked to specify the following: Macro-level theories refer to society- or group-level causes and processes; micro-level theories address individual-level causes and processes. These are parameters or boundaries specified by the theorist that identify the types of empirical phenomena to which the theory applies.
Most theories begin by assuming certain "facts. Theories vary in terms of whether they specify assumptions, scope conditions and causal mechanisms. Sometimes they can only be inferred: Clearly understanding all the parts of a theory helps you ensure that you are applying the theory correctly to your case.
Most importantly, however, you should single out the main argument or point usually the causal relationship and mechanism of the theory. Students often go astray here by latching onto an inconsequential or less important part of the theory reading, showing the relationship to their case, and then assuming they have fully applied the theory.
Using Evidence to Make Your Argument Theory application papers involve making a claim or argument based on theory, supported by empirical evidence.
Each class of problem is addressed below, followed by some pointers for choosing "cases," or deciding upon the empirical phenomenon to which you will apply the theoretical perspective or argument including where to find data. A common problem seen in theory application assignments is failing to substantiate claims, or making a statement that is not backed up with evidence or details "proof".
When you make a statement or a claim, ask yourself, "How do I know this? Put this evidence in your paper and remember to cite your sources. Similarly, be careful about making overly strong or broad claims based on insufficient evidence.
You may also want to be careful about making authoritative conclusive claims about broad social phenomena based on a single case study. In addition to un- or under-substantiated claims, another problem that students often encounter when writing these types of papers is lack of clarity regarding "voice," or whose ideas they are presenting.
The reader is left wondering whether a given statement represents the view of the theorist, the student, or an author who wrote about the case. Be careful to identify whose views and ideas you are presenting. They spend the majority of their papers simply summarizing regurgitating the details of a case—much like a book report.
One way to avoid this is to remember that theory indicates which details or variables of a case are most relevant, and to focus your discussion on those aspects. A second strategy is to make sure that you relate the details of the case in an analytical fashion.
You could organize the details of the case into paragraphs and start each paragraph with an analytical sentence about how the theory relates to different aspects of the case. Some theory application papers require that you choose your own case an empirical phenomenon, trend, situation, etc.
Many students find choosing their own case rather challenging. Some questions to guide your choice are: Can I obtain sufficient data with relative ease on my case? Is my case specific enough? If your subject matter is too broad or abstract, it becomes both difficult to gather data and challenging to apply the theory.
Is the case an interesting one? Professors often prefer that you avoid examples used by the theorist themselves, those used in lectures and sections, and those that are extremely obvious.
The UW libraries make your job easy: For example, if you are choosing a historical case, you might want to access newspaper articles. This has become increasingly easy to do, as many are now online through the UW library.
If you are interested in interview or observational data, you might try to find books or articles that are case-studies on your topic of interest by conducting a simple keyword search of the UW library book holdings, or using an electronic database, such as JSTOR or Sociological Abstracts.
Scholarly articles are easy to search through, since they contain abstracts, or paragraphs that summarize the topic, relevant literature, data and methods, and major findings. When using JSTOR, you may want to limit your search to sociology which includes 70 journals and perhaps political science; this database retrieves full-text articles.Welcome to Sociological Research Online.
We have moved! Sociological Research Online (SRO) is now published by the BSA and SAGE, and as of August this site will no longer be active. The journal homepage, latest updates, and all issues (including issue onwards) are available on the SAGE Journals leslutinsduphoenix.com you are based outside of an academic institution, please contact the .
Review articles are a great place to start if you want to learn more about a subfield of sociology! Take a look at a sample issue of the American Journal of Sociology for some examples of research articles. Further Resources. Visit our Working Notes section to read articles about applied sociology written by applied sociologists, or watch our videos with applied researchers and activists.
See our other resources.. Notes. 1.
At the time of writing, Zuleyka was employed as a Social Scientist in the Australian public service, and she was an Adjunct Research Fellow with the Swinburne Institute of. The National University Library has over article databases.
Using a subject database, as opposed to a general or all-topics database, is sometimes an easier way to identify articles from a specific discipline's perspective. The research, published in the journal Ageing and Society, was conducted by Professor Julia Twigg from the School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research.
7 . Popular Science articles about Psychology & Sociology Posting personal experiences on social media may help you remember them in the future A new study -- the first to look at social media's effect on memory -- suggests posting personal experiences on social media makes those events much easier to recall.