Although he tolerated the use of the term by associates and was never used by Joseph Stalinwho described himself as a Marxist-Leninist and a "pupil of Lenin. It is also used as a pejorative to describe politicians and political groups, Communist or non-Communist, who are perceived as particularly authoritarian or hard-line. Stalinism has been described as being synonymous with totalitarianismor a tyrannical regime. The term has been used to describe regimes that fight political dissent through violence, terror, imprisonment, and killings.
Although he tolerated the use of the term by associates and was never used by Joseph Stalinwho described himself as a Marxist-Leninist and a "pupil of Lenin.
It is also used as a pejorative to describe politicians and political groups, Communist or non-Communist, who are perceived as particularly authoritarian or hard-line.
Globalisation in Russia: the challenge of the transition to the world economy Fifteen years ago, the Soviet Union was a socialist authoritative country, tightly isolated from capitalist countries. Nowadays, its direct heir, Russia, is one of the most quickly growing markets of the world, strongly open on the global economy. Stalinism is the name given to the political and economic system which Joseph Stalin implemented in the Soviet Union between and , while he was General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. It includes a command economy, an extensive use of propaganda to establish a personality cult around an absolute dictator, and the use of the secret police. Leninism, principles expounded by Vladimir I. Lenin, who was the preeminent figure in the Russian Revolution of Whether Leninist concepts represented a contribution to or a corruption of Marxist thought has been debated, but their influence on the subsequent development of communism in the Soviet Union and elsewhere has been of fundamental importance.
Stalinism has been described as being synonymous with totalitarianismor a tyrannical regime. The term has been used to describe regimes that fight political dissent through violence, terror, imprisonment, and killings.
Political Theory "Stalinism" refers to a style of government, rather than a political ideology. The term "Stalinism" is used by anti-communists, communists left communists, trotskyistsluxemburgists, council communistsand even pro- Stalin Marxist-Leninists themselves to denote the brand of communism that dominated the Soviet Unionand the countries within the Soviet sphere of influence, during the leadership of Joseph Stalin.
The term used in the Soviet Union and by most who uphold its legacy, however, is " Marxism-Leninism. Stalinism claimed to apply the ideas of Marx and Lenin in ways appropriate to the changing needs of society, such as the transition from "socialism at a snail's pace" in the mid-twenties to the rapid industrialization of the Five-Year Plans.
However, many people professing Marxism or Leninism view Stalinism as a perversion of their ideas; Trotskyists, in particular, are virulently anti-Stalinist, considering Stalinism a counter-revolutionary policy which used Marxism to achieve power.
From toLenin, Trotskyand Stalin often appeared united, but, in fact, their ideological differences never disappeared. Also, Stalin disagreed with Trotsky over the role of peasants, such as in the revolution in China, where Trotsky favored urban insurrection over peasant-based guerrilla warfare.
The main contributions of Stalin to communist theory were: Socialism in One Country, a focus on establishing a successful Marxist society in one country the Soviet Union rather than theorizing about world revolution.
The theory of aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism, a theoretical base supporting the repression of political opponents as necessary. Personality Cult Josef Stalin Stalin established himself as the supreme leader of Russiaeliminating anyone who openly criticized him or opposed his policies and using the Cheka, the police, the military and his intelligence organization to ensure that no person succeeded in questioning his authority.
In Februaryin his "Secret Speech," On the Personality Cult and its Consequences, delivered to a closed session of the Twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet UnionKhrushchev denounced Stalin for his cult of personality, and his regime for "violation of Leninist norms of legality.
This model has been followed in numerous communist regimes and modern dictatorships, including those of Cuba and North Korea. Aggravation of the Class Struggle The theory of aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism, which became one of the cornerstones of Stalinism in the internal politics of the Soviet Unionwas put forward by Joseph Stalin in Stalin argued that as the country advanced towards realizing the ideal of socialismthe struggle of the doomed remnants of the exploitive classes against socialism would become more and more acute.
Therefore, political repression was necessary to prevent them from succeeding in their presumed goal of destroying the Soviet Union. Stalin believed that the class enemy could even worm its way into the party leading a socialist state. He evaluated his associates according to whether or not they acted on the belief that there could be enemies inside the Party.
Stalin labeled tolerance inside the Party to those who disagreed with the official Party line as "rotten liberalism," and claimed that such tolerance would weaken the Party and eventually lead to its destruction, making occasional purges necessary. Mao Zedong developed Stalin's idea further, saying that there is an entire bourgeoisie inside the Communist Party, leading a socialist state before the establishment of communism.
While Stalin regarded enemies within the party as Western agents, Mao proposed that the enemy was a domestic bourgeoisie which aimed at the restoration of capitalism. Mao held that the restoration of capitalism could happen from within, without war, if there were an ebb in the class struggle.
Upon the death of Mao, Hua Guofeng and Deng Xiaoping rejected his theory of the "bourgeoisie in the party. This came to be known as the 'Great Turn', as Russia turned away from the near-capitalist New Economic Policy NEP which had been implemented by Lenin following seven years of warWWI from toand the subsequent Civil Warin order to ensure the survival of the Communist state, and which had rebuilt Soviet production to its levels.
Russia still lagged far behind the West, and Stalin and the majority of the Communist party felt that the New Economic Policy was not only compromising Communist ideals, but was not producing satisfactory economic performance or contributing to the creation of the envisaged Socialist society.
In order to make Russia a global power, it was necessary to increase the pace of industrialization and catch up with the West. Russia was essentially still based upon a backward agrarian economy, while her Western capitalist rivals were fully industrialized, making Russia vulnerable to attack.
The lack of any natural boundaries other than the great distances involvedas well as the extremely long border, meant that in the event of invasion, any attacking force could rapidly converge upon the comparatively small industrial center focused around Moscow.
It was therefore necessary to establish an eastern industrial base, beyond the Urals, that could continue the Soviet war effort in event of Moscow's capture.
It was also necessary to establish industry capable of producing armaments of sufficient quantity and quality to fight a modern war. Russia had to rely on expensive imports for industrially manufactured goods, especially the heavy industrial plant required for industrial production.
The USSR required its own industrial base to produce goods for its own people, but in order to acquire the foreign currency with which to buy the basis of an industrialized economy as well as the initial raw materials needed to fuel it, surplus grain would be required for export.
This necessitated an increase in grain production, and made industrialization dependant on the work of the peasants. A poor harvest meant that industrialization could not go ahead, since the peasants required grain to support themselves and the burgeoning urban population, and only surplus grain was available for export.
Stalin made use of the collectivization of agriculture to take control of agricultural production in order to finance the drive towards industrialization. The process of collectivization was not a peaceful one, and Stalin dealt harshly with the resistance of the peasants and the wealthy rural farmers "kulaks".
According to Marxist theory, Socialism could only exist in a highly industrialized state, where the overwhelming majority of the population were workers.This option provides for the study in depth of the coming and practice of communism in Russia.
It explores concepts such as Marxism, communism, Leninism, and Stalinism. Stalinism is an interpretation of their ideas, and a certain political regime claiming to apply those ideas in ways fitting the changing needs of society, as with the transition from "socialism at a snail's pace" in the mid-twenties to the .
Stalinism is the name given to the political and economic system which Joseph Stalin implemented in the Soviet Union between and , while he was General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
It includes a command economy, an extensive use of propaganda to establish a personality cult around an absolute dictator, and the use of the secret police. Stalinism claimed to apply the ideas of Marx and Lenin in ways appropriate to the changing needs of society, such as the transition from "socialism at a snail's pace" in the mid-twenties to the rapid industrialization of the Five-Year Plans.
IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism..
Developed by and named for the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, Leninism comprises socialist political and economic theories, developed from Marxism and Lenin's interpretations of Marxist.